About the project

The project "Urban climate in Central European cities and global climate change" is co-financed by International Visegrad Fund as a standard grant (No. 21410222), in the years 2014-2015.


Urban areas are among those most endangered with the potential global climate changes. The studies concerning the impact of global changes on local climate of cities are of a high significance for the urban inhabitants' health and wellbeing. The project aims to raise the public awareness on those issues in four Central European cities: Szeged (Hungary), Brno (the Czech Republic), Bratislava (Slovakia) and Krakow (Poland), by delivering the results of contemporary scientific research to the decision makers, local authorities and all interested persons. The urban areas in Central Europe after the II World War developed differently than in Western Europe, due to political and economic conditions. Therefore, the urban structure is also different and the urban climate studies must include those specific features. Within the project, complex data concerning local geomorphological features, land use and long-term climatological data will be used to perform the climate modelling analyses using the model MUKLIMO_3 provided by the German (DWD) and Austrian (ZAMG) weather services. Brno, Bratislava and Krakow are located in river valleys with complex relief features, while Szeged is located on a flat area. The modelling approach is designed to evaluate possible changes in urban heat load under future climate conditions. The MUKLIMO_3 model is able to include the role of the relief in controlling the urban climate which is a unique feature comparing to other similar tools available.


The project realization is based on application of the advanced research tools and on meetings designed to provide the knowledge transfer, users’ feedback and discussion of the results obtained.


The non-hydrostatic MUKLIMO_3 model has been developed by DWD (Deutscher Wetterdienst) for micro-scale urban climate and planning applications (Sievers and Zdunkowski 1986, Sievers 1990). It further provides a tool for various scientific applications on the urban scale (e.g. urban flow, cold air drainage, urban heat island). MUKLIMO_3 simulates the atmospheric temperature, humidity and wind field on a three dimensional model grid. For this purpose, the basic model MUKLIMO was generalized with the stream function-vorticity method to three dimensions (Sievers 1995). The model is augmented with prognostic equations for atmospheric temperature and humidity, balanced heat and moisture budgets in the soil (Sievers et al. 1983) and a sophisticated vegetation model (Siebert et al. 1992). Cloud processes and precipitation are not considered, which limits the model application to days without precipitation.

The detailed theoretical description of the model can be found in two separate reports (Sievers 2012 and Sievers 2014). Additionally, some aspects of the MUKLIMO_3 model are published in peer-reviewed journals:

Früh, B., Becker, P., Deutschländer, T., Hessel, J.-D., Koßmann, M. , Mieskes, I., Namyslo, J., Roos, M., Sievers, U., Steigerwald, T., Turau, H., Wienert, U., 2011. Estimation of climate change impacts on the urban heat load using an urban climate model and regional climate projections. Journal Applied Meteorology and Climatology 50(1), p. 167-184.

Siebert, J., Sievers, U., Zdunkowski, W., 1992. A one-dimensional simulation of the interaction between land surface processes and the atmosphere. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 59, p. 1-34.

Sievers, U., 2012. Das kleinskalige Strömungsmodell MUKLIMO_3 Teil 1: Theoretische Grundlagen, PC-Basisversion und Validierung. Berichte des Deutschen Wetterdienstes 240, Offenbach am Main, Germany (German).

Sievers, U., 2014. Das kleinskalige Strömungsmodell MUKLIMO_3 Teil 2: Thermodynamische Erweiterungen. Berichte des Deutschen Wetterdienstes Entwurf, Offenbach am Main, Germany (German).

Sievers, U., 1990. Dreidimensionale Simulationen in Stadtgebieten. Umweltmeteorologie,Schriftenreihe Band 15: Sitzung des Hauptausschusses II am 7. und 8. Juni in Lahnstein.Kommission Reinhaltung der Luft im VDI und DIN, Düsseldorf. p. 92-105 (German).

Sievers, U., 1995. Verallgemeinerung der Stromfunktionsmethode auf drei Dimensionen. Meteorol. Zeitschrift, N. F. 4, S. 3-15 (German).

Sievers, U., Forkel, R., Zdunkowski, W., 1983. Transport equations for heat and moisture in the soil and their application to boundary layer problems. Beitr. Phys. Atmosph. 56, p. 58-83.

Sievers, U., Zdunkowski, W., 1986. A microscale urban climate model. Beitr. Phys. Atmosph. 59, p. 13-40.

Zuvela-Aloise, M., Koch, R., Neureiter, A., Böhm, R., Buchholz, S., 2014. Reconstructing urban climate of Vienna based on historical maps dating to the early instrumental period. Urban Climate, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.uclim.2014.04.002.

As the MUKLIMO_3 model is developed further, please send your feedback and questions to:


2. Project meetings

Kick-off meeting in ZAMG, Vienna, Austria, 26-28.10.2014

The first meeting of the project participants took place on 26-28.10.2014, in ZAMG, Vienna, Austria. The issues concerning input data for the MUKLIMO_3 model were discussed and the training in model application was realized, with great support from ZAMG staff members

Modelling meeting in ZAMG, Vienna, Austria, 30.11-2.12.2014

The second project meeting was organized on 30.11.2014-2.12.2014 in ZAMG, Vienna, Austria, for the international project modelling group only, to discuss particular technical issues for the four Visegrad cities

Mid-term meeting in Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland, 19-21.06.2015

The third project meeting took place on 19-21.06.2015, in the Jagiellonian University, Institute of Geography and Spatial Management, Kraków, Poland. All participants of the project discussed the results obtained for the four Visegrad cities, took decisions concerning planned publications and future co-operation.

Project Open Day meetings in Krakow, Brno, Bratislava and Szeged

3. Conferences and publications

The results of the project will be presented to the scientific community during the international conferences and in the form of published scientific papers.

The objectives and results of the project were presented during the following conferences:

1. EGU General Assembly, Vienna, Austria, 12-17.04.2015

Abstract available at: http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2015/EGU2015-1594.pdf

 2. 9th International Conference on Urban Climate jointly with 12th Symposium on the Urban Environment, Toulouse, France, 20-24.07.2015

Abstract available at: http://www.meteo.fr/icuc9/Abstract/CCMA.pdf

3. Fifth EUGEO Congress on the Geography of Europe: Convergences and Divergences of Geography in Europe, 30.08-2.09.2015, Budapest, Hungary

Abstract available at: http://eugeo2015.com/sessions/presentation/66